France has an independence streak that cannot be cowed. Anyone who tries to will suffer the consequences. Macron should remember this when seeking to implement Frau Merkel’s economic reforms–as should Putin, when seeking to incorporate France into a new alliance.
The old paradigm of keeping Germany down, American in, and the Russians out of Europe is being challenged by all involved. Historical patterns suggest that the Russians, Germans, and French will seek closer ties in such an environment.
On July 19 a Hong Kong family was traveling on a train in southern Germany when they were attacked by a 17 year-old Afghan (of Pashtun origin) wielding an axe, intent on killing them in the name of the Islamic State.